Multidisciplinary Journal of Technical University of Mombasa <p>Multidisciplinary<strong> Journal of Technical University of Mombasa </strong>is the official refereed journal of the Technical University of Mombasa (TUMMJ). TUMMJ is an open access journal hosted by the Library Department at the Technical University of Mombasa ... <a title="About the Journal" href="">Read more</a></p> Technical University of Mombasa en-US Multidisciplinary Journal of Technical University of Mombasa 2788-9068 Editorial <p><strong>Editorial Note</strong></p> <p>Five months after the first issue of MJTUM Volume 1 was published in December 2020, we are happy Volume 1 Issue 2 has also been finally published. This Issue comprises of a total of 7 original articles featuring review and research articles. The coverage of Volume 1 Issue 2 is relatively wide covering engineering, business, and public health domains. In the engineering domain, 2 papers bring out aspects of green energy and sustainable environment, an important aspect during this era of unprecedented climate change manifested by global sea surface temperature rise, sea level rise, ocean acidification, and increased incidences of cyclones. This has partly has been attributed to the production of greenhouse gases by man. The 2 papers therefore, point out possible innovative ways of reducing the emission of such greenhouse gases for a clean and sustainable environment. &nbsp;In the business domain, the 2 papers have brought about improved business and production on researched impacts of firms’ performance by use of self-service technologies, as well as the engagement of firms’ employees on small and medium size enterprises. All this is dedicated to increasing firm efficiency and production. In the public health domain, MJTUM has featured 3 articles in which one has investigated on the current status of married pregnant women together with their couples taking HIV AIDS testing and counseling, an important exercise to reduce possible chances of HIV AIDS infection to new born babies from infected mothers. The ever increasing popularity of public transportation by commercial motor cycle riders has been investigated as a public health aspect on the rate of associated accidents mainly due to lack of observed cycling rules and training among riders. Finally, shisha consumption among students of higher learning institutions has also captured an emerging subject of public health worth further investigation. It is my hope that you will enjoy reading these articles.</p> Cosmas Nzaka Munga Copyright (c) 2021 Multidisciplinary Journal of Technical University of Mombasa 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 1 2 A Review of Tidal Power Potential in Kenya <p>The world is experiencing a dynamic shift in terms of energy production, with nations focusing more on renewable sources of energy. This is because renewable energy sources are eco-friendly, reserves of fossil fuels around the world are getting depleted, and unstable market prices of these fossil fuels. Here in Kenya, the revolution has been felt, especially with heavy investment in geothermal and wind power. Since hydroelectric, geothermal and wind power account for more than 70% of energy consumption in Kenya, it is evident that Kenya is taking strides in the correct direction. However, tidal energy is still left behind in this foray, despite its large potential due to the presence of Kenya’s coastline measuring 640 km long, and most notably, the predictability of this tidal energy. Due to the fact that tidal energy is directly related to the gravitational relationship between the earth and the moon, which is predictable, tidal energy can really help in terms of reduction of pressure and dependence on the hydro power generating seven forks scheme in Kenya. If well synchronized, tidal energy can help alleviate the chronic power rationing that occurs during the dry season in Kenya. By studying work done in other countries, large scale production of electric power from tidal energy can be achieved.</p> Aron Oronyi Ohuru Copyright (c) 2021 Multidisciplinary Journal of Technical University of Mombasa 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 1 2 1 4 10.48039/mjtum.v1i2.31 Effect of Employee Engagement on Performance of Small and Medium Size Enterprises in Mombasa County, Kenya <p>In today’s global environment one of the major challenges is having engaged workforce in an organization. The workforce is one of the organization’s greatest assets. Employee engagement is the process of keeping employees engaged in the organization. It is one of the key fundamentals of making an organization competitive. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of employee engagement on performance of small and medium organizations in Mombasa County, Kenya. A positivist paradigm using descriptive research design was used. Stratified random sampling technique was used to interview respondents. The study sampled a total of 105 small and medium enterprises operators. A questionnaire with Likert-type interval scale anchored on a 5-point scale was used to collect data. Hypotheses were tested using Pearson’s product moment and multiple regression. Findings of the study indicated that most of the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have not embraced the concept of employee engagement. Nonetheless they have awareness of the practices that employees desired which would give them competitive edge. It is of necessity that the SMEs operators be trained on best practices and also benchmark within their industry subsectors so as to be able to initiate and embrace employee engagement. At start-ups and early stages of business growth, there is minimal investment in human resources which results in haphazard recruitment of family members who are sometimes are neither qualified nor trained and not engaged.&nbsp; Consequently, the staff underperforms, a lot of infighting and conflicts in families and relatives, leading to strained family relationships and high labour turnover which in turn affects performance. The study recommended a deliberate action be taken by the management to embrace employee engagement concept for their organizations to be competitive. Implications of the study are that adopting employee engagement empowers employees which results in increased performance in organizations. The study also contributes to the literature that seeks to develop theory emphasizing the importance of embracing employee engagement notion as an important human resource concept.</p> Mary Peninah Ibua Copyright (c) 2021 Multidisciplinary Journal of Technical University of Mombasa 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 1 2 5 17 10.48039/mjtum.v1i2.32 Innovative Farming and Building Materials from Recycled Plastics <p>Despite the ban on use of plastic paper bags, large amounts of plastic litter still exist in our environment. Plastic bottles form a greater percentage of the litter. The growth of the consumer market for cosmetics and soft drinks which are usually packaged in plastic containers continues to give rise to plastic pollution. To maintain the quality of the environment while achieving sustainable development plastic litter could be viewed as raw and innovative materials for making new items. Plastics can be recycled and made into furniture, ornamental products, and building blocks among others. This paper describes how recycling plastic waste into products of plastic sheets and blocks is conducted for multi-purpose use. The resultant sheets and blocks can be designed to have slots and extensions on the edges such that they allow interlocking the same way concrete interlock blocks work. The sheets and blocks can be used to make furniture, office partitions, and interior design. The sheets for furniture making can be craftily decorated with beads while they are still in molten state to produce ornamental furniture. This can be achieved through arranging beads in molds before introducing the molten polymers into them. The plastic blocks and sheets can also be used to make swimming pools and fish ponds. Heating temperature and oxidation should however be monitored to prevent degradation of the polymers. The resultant products are durable, attractive and affordable.</p> Andrew Wekesa Nabangala Benson Githua Kimani Benard Isaac Nyakundi Copyright (c) 2021 Multidisciplinary Journal of Technical University of Mombasa 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 1 2 18 22 10.48039/mjtum.v1i2.33 Acceptance of Couples’ HIV Counseling and Testing among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Likoni sub-County, Mombasa County, Kenya <p>Couples’ HIV Counseling and Testing (CHCT) is an essential component of an effective response to AIDS pandemic worldwide and serves as an entry point to HIV care and support. However, it has become increasingly apparent that couples have overlooked the services yet they are too at risk of HIV infection. This study sought to determine level of acceptance of CHCT among pregnant women attending antenatal care services in Likoni sub-County, Mombasa County, Kenya. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used with structured questionnaires and an observation checklist to collect data from couples while an interview schedule was used to solicit data from health care workers. Results showed uptake of CHCT in the study area was relatively low (33.5%). Statistically significant associations were found between CHCT and demographic factors such as education (<em>χ<sup>2 </sup></em><sub>= </sub>29.54; p = 0.005), marital status (<em>χ<sup>2 </sup></em>= 12.41; p <sub>=</sub> 0.010), occupation (<em>χ<sup>2 </sup></em>= 18.18; p &lt; 0.001), income (<em>χ<sup>2 </sup></em>= 23.02; p &lt; 0.001). In operation factors, statistically significant associations were found between CHCT and distance to health facility (<em>χ<sup>2 </sup></em>= 8.31; p = 0.040), means of transport (<em>χ<sup>2 </sup></em>= 10.28, p = 0.040), cost of transport (<em>χ<sup>2 </sup></em>= 10.92; p = 0.010), appropriateness and convenience of time allocated (<em>χ<sup>2 </sup></em>= 11.88, p &lt;, 0.001), an individual’s working hours per day (<em>χ<sup>2 </sup></em>= 14.46; p &lt; 0.001), and education/information on CHCT (<em>χ<sup>2 </sup></em>= 5.97; p = 0.020). In HIV related knowledge, attitude and practice of couples on HIV risk behavior, significant associations were found between CHCT and prevention of discordant partners from contracting HIV (<em>χ<sup>2 </sup></em>= 53.71; p &lt; 0.001), helping couples adhere to ART (<em>χ<sup>2 </sup></em>= 43.34; p &nbsp;&lt; 0.001), helping to reduce morbidity and mortality due to HIV and other opportunistic infections (<em>χ<sup>2 </sup></em>= 48.66; p &lt; 0.001), increasing trust among partners (<em>χ<sup>2 </sup></em>= 45.16; p &lt; 0.001), and increasing marital cohesion among partners (<em>χ<sup>2 </sup></em>= 65.78; p &lt; 0.001). Logistic regression revealed that determinants of CHCT were significant for married status (p &lt; 0.001), unemployed (p = 0.020), that CHCT increases trust among partners (p = 0.020), and that CHCT increases marital cohesion among partners (p = 0.001). Based on these findings, there is need to improve awareness on CHCT to enhance positive attitudes towards couples testing.</p> Jeniffer Makena Mwongera Shadrack Ayieko Yonge Joseph Baya Msanzu Rahma Udu Yussuf Copyright (c) 2021 Multidisciplinary Journal of Technical University of Mombasa 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 1 2 23 35 10.48039/mjtum.v1i2.34 Determinants of Accident Occurrence among Commercial Motor Cycle Riders in Kaloleni Sub-County, Kilifi County, Kenya <p>Motorcycle accidents remain one of the main global concerns despite extensive research and interventions. The African region has the highest road fatality rates globally, in spite of being the least motorized region. Kenya has an estimated road fatality rate of 20.9 per 100,000 people, higher than that of the European region. There has been an increased use of motorcycles in Kenya over the last decade, so has the number of deaths from motorcycle injury. This study was aimed to establish the determinants of accident occurrence among commercial motorcycle riders in Kaloleni sub-County, Kilifi County, Kenya. A self- administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 279 commercial motorcycle riders. Factors associated with accident occurrence were analysed using both bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results showed that 29.2% of the respondents had been involved in a road traffic accident in the past 12 months by the time of the study. Factors that were independently associated with motorcycle accidents included riding experience of more than 8 years (p = 0.040), alcohol use (p = 0.040), slippery roads (p = 0.020) and pot holes on roads (p = &lt;0.001). Moreover, participants acquired their riding skills from friends (64.9%) or self-trained (33.6%). It can be concluded that motorcycle accidents is still a major public health problem in the study area due to the recorded high rate. Thus, it is recommended that all motorcyclists should be well trained and issued with riding license after attending formal training, and strict penalties imposed against anybody contravening road traffic rules. Moreover, roads should be continuously improved to reduce accident rates.</p> Baya Mkaha Zuma Shadrack Ayieko Yonge Joseph Baya Msanzu Rahma Udu Yussuf Copyright (c) 2021 Multidisciplinary Journal of Technical University of Mombasa 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 1 2 36 47 10.48039/mjtum.v1i2.35 A Review of the Effects of Self-Service Technologies on Firm Performance in Kenya <p>Self-service technology (SST) continues to create tremendous impact on the business environment globally. A technology that allows consumers to take on the traditional place of service agents in the provision of services<em>. </em>Business organizations are taking advantage of the advancement in technology to improve service delivery and performance. The advancement in technology particularly with respect to nanotechnology, genome sequencing and artificial intelligence are among the drivers of the 4<sup>th</sup> Industrial Revolution. Consequently, information technology advancement is changing the marketing landscape of goods and services such that service industry, notably hospitality and transport have increased the prevalence of SSTs, as critical drivers of an organization’s industrial strength level. By a firm adopting technology-based strategy, this means higher clients’ satisfaction, cost minimization, and faster accurate service delivery with higher consistency among other benefits. This paper therefore, assesses the impact of SSTs and emphasizes on actual adoption and usage of self-service as proposed by technology acceptance model. The study reviews theoretical and empirical literature on the subject of SSTs and firm performance, identifies the research gaps and puts forward a suitable conceptual framework that can investigate the link between SST and firm performance. This paper uses secondary data to establish research gaps and the determinant of the success of adoption of SST by a firm. From a total of 54 articles reviewed, almost all studies on SSTs are based on the service sector focusing least on the internal customers in Kenya. A few studies related directly to the performance of the firms to the adoption of SSTs. Agricultural and manufacturing sectors particularly in the rural areas are unexploited directly. This is due to infrastructural imbalances in the urban and rural areas. The outcome of this review would enlighten; administrators of firms in Kenya and the entire East African region on the importance of ICT infrastructure, the information resources and the strategies for optimizing electronic services to attain competitive advantage. It widens the frontiers of knowledge for the academic community in production and operation management and enhances the understanding of the customer SST interactions in different industries. It creates further valuable implications on the industrial sectors, principally to the managers who use the information in drafting service related strategies and hence become a yardstick to evaluate the present service initiatives appropriately. It allows the managers to have a basis to determine whether the massive investment in adoption of technology is justifiable. Finally, this paper contributes to the existing knowledge in self-service technology and customer satisfaction and serves as source of reference to future researchers and academicians in this field.</p> Zedekia Juma Adhaya Stephen Ochieng Odock Copyright (c) 2021 Multidisciplinary Journal of Technical University of Mombasa 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 1 2 48 56 10.48039/mjtum.v1i2.36 Predictors of Shisha Consumption among Students in Tertiary Institutions: A Systematic Review <p>Tobacco use is a risk factor for several diseases, disabilities and premature deaths. Shisha is specially flavoured tobacco and majority of the users perceive hookah smoking to be safer than cigarette. Shisha use has become rampant and trendy among students in tertiary institutions. This review aims to evaluate predictors of shisha consumption among students in tertiary institutions. We reviewed references of authentic databases and journals including Web of Science, PubMed, Iranian Databases, National Agency for the Campaign against Alcohol and Drug Abuse, CDC and WHO. The review focused on data documented from 2010 up to 2020.Predictors of shisha use were: shisha availability and accessibility, flavouring ,gender, awareness level, parental factors, marital status, social acceptability, peer pressure, birth order, monthly stipend, course enrolled in, internet and legal framework on hookah smoking. Most students using shisha reported to be poly drug users with marijuana, tobacco products, alcohol and khat. Most students consume shisha either singly or concurrently or simultaneously alongside other drugs. However, it is not possible to tell if shisha use preceded use of other drugs or was an aftermath. There is need to strengthen laws and policies regulating waterpipe industry. Since nearly all the reviewed literature was based on self-reported history which is prone to both social desirability bias and memory recall bias there is need to have confirmed incidence of shisha use in this sub-population.</p> Abdulrehman Halima Allahdad Cromwell Mwiti Kibiti Rahma Udu Yusuf Valentine Budambula Copyright (c) 2021 Multidisciplinary Journal of Technical University of Mombasa 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 1 2 57 70 10.48039/mjtum.v1i2.37